Quality of Effluents from Hattar Industrial Area Pakistan.
Riaz Ahmed Sial Sr., Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore, Punjab, 46000, Pakistan
There are 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, of which 1228 are considered to be highly polluting, i.e. textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), oil mills and leather tanning which are spread over in all four provinces. Hattar Industrial Estate covering an area of 700 acres,in Haripur district is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, Textile industry and Pharmaceuticals industry. These industries, although developed with a proper planning but are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. So, effluents from different industries were collected and analysed for pH, electrical conductivity, total soluble salts, biological oxygen demand , chemical oxygen demand , total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries were highly alkaline. Electrical conductivity and total salts load of ghee and textile industry were also above the NEQS. All the effluents had Residual sodium carbonates, carbonates and bicarbonates values in the limits that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents was also above the limit i.e., 2.0 mg/L. copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents, and iron contents in all the effluents were higher than NEQS. BOD and COD values of all the industries were also above the NEQS. On the whole, these effluents cannot be used for irrigation without proper treatment, otherwise it will cause the problem of salinity and sodicity and teh effluents cannot be used for fish farming,.