Retaining some post-harvest sugarcane residue in the field has been shown to reduce runoff, erosion and off-site transport of agrochemicals; however the optimum level of residue retention needs to be evaluated in light of planned bio-energy plants utilizing sugarcane for ethanol production. Greenhouse rainfall simulations on Commerce silt loam in soil beds (0.6m x 1.5m) prepared to represent typical sugarcane management practices were used to assess the effects of residue management on runoff, sediments and agrochemical losses. Fertilizer (220 kg/ha applied as 32% N solution), atrazine and pendimethalin were applied. Runoff and sediments were collected and analyzed for pesticides and nutrients. A study of three residue management practices included full coverage, residue swept into center furrows and no residue (to simulate residue burning). Bare soil had the highest off-site transport (199 mm runoff, erosion of 1.9 Mg/ha, and nitrate loss of 9.0 kg/ha), full residue cover reduced runoff by 85 %, erosion by 95 %, and nitrate loss by 90 % and swept residue reduced runoff by 6 %, erosion by 60 % and nitrate loss by 32 %. Decreasing the amount of swept residue resulted in increased runoff, sediment, nutrient and pesticide losses. Another study included varying levels of swept residue (100%, 20% and 0%) indicated that higher levels of residue retention are necessary to limit soil and agrochemical loss by erosion. These results suggest that a higher residue cover will reduce off-site transport of agrochemicals and erosion with acceptable levels of bio-mass harvest for bio-energy production.