Forage-based Protein Feeds for Smallholder On-farm Pig and Poultry Production and the Feed Industry.
Michael Peters1, Douglas S. White1, Sam Fujisaka1, Luis H. Franco1, Carlos Lascano1, Luz S. Muñoz2, Patricia I. Sarria2, Carlos A. Montoya2, Nelson Vivas3, Oscar J. Arroyave4, Peter Lentes5, Axel Schmidt6, and Martin Mena7. (1) Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), A.A. 6713, Cali, Colombia, (2) Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira, Carrera 32 Chapinero, Palmira, Colombia, (3) Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad del Cauca, Calle 5 No. 4 – 70, Popayán, Colombia, (4) Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje (SENA), Centro Latinoamericano de especies menores (CLEM), km 2 Via Tulua San Pedro, Tulua, Colombia, (5) Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Edificio DICTA/SAG, Boulevard Miraflores, P.O.Box 15159, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, (6) Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Del Restaurante La Marseillaise, 2c al lago, Reparto San Juan de Los Robles, LM-172, Managua, Nicaragua, (7) Instituto Nicaragüense de Tecnología Agropecuario (INTA), De plaza Banco del Café, 0.5 cuadras al este, Managua, Nicaragua
Meat consumption is increasing in developing countries. Pork and poultry, not beef, have dominated consumption changes. Despite this market opportunity resulting from greater consumer demand, smallholder farmers may not benefit. Trade liberalization and superior market access provide advantages to larger-scale commercial operations. Numerous factors including a scarcity of high-quality feed restrict smallholder animal production and marketing efforts. While purchased animal feeds could enable farmers to expand production, household funds are typically insufficient; or feed is expensive, distant, or simply unavailable. Investments in coordinated research, policy and development efforts are needed to enable smallholders to competitively take advantage of new opportunities. Otherwise, smallholder livestock production, which generates employment and can reduce rural poverty, may become less competitive and further marginalized. Diagnostic surveys conducted in Colombia, Honduras and Nicaragua in 2005 and 2006 confirm that protein restricts monogastric production in many smallholder systems. Although monogastric animals are important to rural livelihoods, the nutritional value of locally-produced feeds for monogastrics is limited. Research is needed to understand how to foster the adaptation and adoption of forage-based protein feeds within market-oriented smallholder monogastric production. This paper analyses research advances on the nutritive value of forage-based feed for monogastrics. A comprehensive research-for-development approach is described that includes a) assessing and improving the nutritional quality of forage-based protein feeds for monogastrics, b) co-development of cost-effective alternative feeding systems based on high-protein forages for on-farm utilization, and c) the facilitation of agro-enterprises that process and market forage-based feed according to the demands of distinct end-users in local, national, and regional markets.