Rice-maize systems in Asia vary widely in terms of crop rotations and yield potential. In this paper, we present an analysis of maize yield potential and results from recent studies on optimizing yields in rice-maize systems. Maize yield potential in SE Asia is mostly in the 10-13 t/ha range, but can reach up to 14-15 t/ha in some areas at higher elevation and with cooler climate. Measured maximum yields in on-farm studies conducted in Indonesia ranged from about 9 to 13 t/ha. Annual grain production may range from about 10 t/ha in rainfed rice-maize or maize-maize systems to as much as 30 t/ha in triple cropping such as irrigated rice-maize-maize in Eastern Java, Indonesia.