Wednesday, November 15, 2006

Spring Bread Wheat Quality Improvement at ICARDA: Evaluation of End-Use Quality Traits of Major Varieties in CAWNA and Advance Breeding Lines.

Osman Abdalla1, Fuad J. El-Haramein2, and Ala'a Yaljarouka1. (1) ICARDA (Int. Cent. for Agric. Res., ICARDA (Int. Cent. for Agric. Res. in Dry Areas), P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, SYRIA, (2) ICARDA, ICARDA, ALEPPO, 963, Syria

Bread Wheat is the main staple food in Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA) Region where per capita consumption is among the highest in the world. Past wheat improvement activities have focused on adaptation and yield improvement. Recently bread-making quality has received increased attention in CWANA. In this study 30 varieties from 7 countries in CWANA in addition to 20 advance lines from ICARDA wheat improvement program were evaluated for end-use quality. Farinograph test was used to evaluate gluten strength and Alveograph was used for evaluating dough extensibility. In addition, the composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) for selected genotypes was determined by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results revealed low frequency of strong and extensible gluten and types among tested CWANA varieties. The observed end-use quality characteristics in current varieties are acceptable for the traditional flat bread common in the region. In contrast, results of evaluating advance breeding lines revealed high frequency raise-bread types.  Thus to improve leavened bread-making quality in CWANA, there is a need to improve both gluten strength and extensibility through the increased use of high quality bread wheat germplasm in the crossing program.